The Victorian Era The Industrial Revolution The era known as the Industrial Revolution was a period of fundamental changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and social structure. An economy based on manual labor and skilled artisans was replaced by one dominated by industry, machinery, and mass production. Energy was a major impetus for this conversion from an agricultural society to an industrial one. Animal and human power were the primary sources of energy until James Watt perfected the steam engine in What started it all: Conditions that promoted the Industrial Revolution were advances in agricultural techniques and practices resulting in an increased supply of food and raw materials. The building of roads, canals, and eventually railways enabled expanded trade. Many of these conditions were so closely interrelated that increased activity in one spurred an increase in activity in another.
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However, the period known as the Victorian era in England, from to , witnessed such polarized gender roles that it can also be analyzed according to the different functions assigned to men and women, more commonly known as the ideology of separate spheres. Women inhabited a separate, private sphere, one suitable for the so called inherent qualities of femininity: Following such principles allowed men, allegedly controlled by their mind or intellectual strength, to dominate society, to be the governing sex, given that they were viewed as rational, brave, and independent.
Women, on the other hand, were dominated by their sexuality, and were expected to fall silently into the social mold crafted by men, since they were regarded as irrational, sensitive, and dutiful. As Susan Kent observes:
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Print this page A powerful trading nation During the reign of Queen Victoria Britain emerged as the most powerful trading nation in the world, provoking a social and economic revolution whose effects are still being felt today. Since the latter part of the eighteenth century the process of industrialisation had built a firm foundation for nineteenth century growth and expansion. At the heart of this was the successful development and application of steam technology.
Before brilliant engineers and entrepreneurs such as James Watt and Matthew Boulton had made steam power a practical reality that had radically improved Britain’s core industries, namely the mining of coal, minerals and other raw materials and the production of iron, textiles and manufactured goods. With its advanced industrial technologies Britain was able to attack a huge and rapidly expanding international market.
At the start of Queen Victoria’s reign, Britain’s standing as a global industrial and trading power was already unrivalled. The complex structures of international trade developed by the Victorians and the maintenance of the process of wealth generation derived from them were dependent upon efficient means of communication. In many ways, the Victorians owe their unique place in history to their imaginative and successful exploitation of three new communication technologies, the steamship, the railway and the electric telegraph.
During the reign of Queen Victoria Britain emerged as the most powerful trading nation in the world The steamship has a long, pre-Victorian ancestry, dating back at least to when the Marquis de Jouffray d’Abbans steamed his little boat, the Pyroscaphe, across the Seine.
The Peel Web
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Art Photography Forgotten Victorian photos reveal another era Working in the archives of an old photography studio in Derby, Debbie Adele Cooper uncovered a haul of prints and glass plate negatives from behind a cellar wall By Claire Holland 1: When opened, it revealed an incredible seven tons of photographic prints, flash powder bottles, cigarette packets and beer bottles dating back to Victorian times. Among the haul were scores of glass plate negatives that had been seriously damaged over time.
Randomly altered by scratches and water stains, the prints take on a character of their own; their beautifully bruised surfaces cultivating an added aura of mystery. Images of businessmen, nurses and children emerged from the past. As an exhibition of her findings at the city’s Format photography festival reveals, the focus of the images in the archive is local but the themes covered are impressively wide-ranging.
Alongside theatrical performances, industry and street scenes, for example, are portraits of German prisoners of war interned in Derbyshire during the First World War. Cooper is re-creating a hexagonal glasshouse using six of the large plates found in the cellar, along with a series of smaller works that will form the roof. By Debbie Adele Cooper I was particularly drawn to the way in which the photos display the nuances of personalities from another era: We know nothing of these sitters — the images raise more questions than they answer, but they intrigue and provoke nonetheless.
The Ghosts of Old London
The Royal Court moved from palace to palace in those days and Falkland Palace was the Stuart ‘sporty’ palace. Other expenditures on golf and clubs and balls are noted in , when the King may have been at Edinburgh or Stirling. In , Archbishop John Hamilton of St Andrews was given a charter to establish a rabbit warren on the north part of the links. These rights were confirmed in subsequent local and royal charters.
The Peel Web I am happy that you are using this web site and hope that you found it useful. Unfortunately, the cost of making this material freely available is increasing, so if you have found the site useful and would like to contribute towards its continuation, I would greatly appreciate it. Click the button to go to Paypal and make a donation. He became an MP in and became Home Secretary in ; he dominated parliament throughout the period Peel was responsible for the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force in and was Prime Minister for a short time in His second ministry lasted from to Peel has been seen as both the founder and betrayer of the Conservative Party and also as the real founder of the Liberal Party.
He has been accused of having no principles because he changed his mind over three important issues: On all three matters he vehemently opposed the proposals for reforming legislation until he felt that he could continue no longer; he then accepted the necessity for, if not the desirability of, change. His second ministry fell as a result of the repeal of the Corn Laws. Historians continue to debate the reasons for Peel’s policies. This web site covers many social, political and economic issues in the period and was written for A Level History students studying this period.
For a “quick view” see the Overview of this site. For more detail, see below.
Native American languages gave us scores of words for things we frequently use—not to mention the many states , rivers, and towns that evolved from Native American names. Skunk, coyote, raccoon, moose, woodchuck, and caribou are a few of the other animals that owe their names to Native American tribes. Squash When English settlers first arrived in North America, they used squash as a verb meaning to crush something and, more arcanely, to refer to an unripe pea pod.
However, they were unfamiliar with the fruit we now know as squash, according to Merriam-Webster. Chocolate This delicious treat comes to us from nature, but we can thank Indigenous Mesoamericans for this Native American name.
• a study over time, testing how far sites in their locality reflect aspects of national history (some sites may predate ) • a study of an aspect of history or a site dating from a period before that is significant in the locality.
Advice on equipping a kitchen in the 19th century Catherine Beecher had firm ideas about what was needed for a well-run household. Her list for the s kitchen in the USA included: In a prosperous American household in a “prudent and generous mistress” would supply her cook “with ample provision of all such things as her important department requires All these articles are indispensable, and there are a great many other useful implements which modern ingenuity has brought into use, and which it would be well to introduce into a fully-arranged kitchen.
Mary Ann Bryan Mason A book aimed at an English couple setting up home in a small cottage in the first half of the 19th century advised: A good copper tea-kettle is the most durable this is an article I don’t know how to persuade you to do without, though some writers cry out bitterly against it. The round shape will be two or three shillings cheaper than the oval, and bears mending better. It is not quite so fashionable, but that you have too much good sense to mind.
The beauty of a copper kettle is in its durability and brightness, not its shape; and the two or three shillings saved will buy you a handy little saucepan, or gridiron, or frying-pan: You should have two strong iron pots, of different sizes; one or other of which, I hope, will be in frequent use. I would wish a working man to have a bit of something hot most days. One pot might do, but not so well, for this reason, you cannot boil anything large in a small pot; and though you might boil what is small in a large one, there would, by so doing, be more firing and time taken up than is necessary.
For any very nice, particular purpose, such as boiling milk, starch, or gruel, there is nothing answers better than bell-metal or brass, which also lasts long.